This very bold plant produces 6" long bunches of small flowrs which are followed by (poisonous) berries that mature to a dark shiny purple, the stout trunk-like mainstem is often tinged with red and supports very broad and large leaves (up to 10" long), produces a very large taproot that can be 5" or more across at the top in a mature plant, has very high wildflife value, songbirds and a variety of creatures enjoy the seeds, a very good dye and/or ink can be made from the berries, clay and gravel tolerant, attracts native pollinators.
Plant Hardiness Zones: 4b-11a
Native Range: NB across s. QC and ON to MN, south through TX and FL
Germination - Moderately Difficult: physical scarification, soak 1 day, then cold strat 4 weeks
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