Crazy inconspicuous tribble-like green female and trailing male flowers May through June, glossy broad green leaves turn deep yellow in fall, female plants produce giant 5 inch round green brain-like fruits (we used to call them Monkey Brains when I was a kid), heavily furrowed bark, tolerates very poor soil, excellent bow wood (prized by Native Americans for this use), heart wood beautiful for woodworking though incredibly hard, rot resistant, individual trees develop a squat and attractive aspect with age, used for living livestock fences and to control soil erosion during the Dust Bowl, very long sharp thorns, excellent bird nest habitat - preferred by Loggerhead Shrikes, Grosbeaks and Crossbills eat the seeds, believed to have been an important food source for NA Woolly Mammoths and Giant Sloths during the Pleistocene epoch!
40-60 foot tall
Plant Hardiness Zones: Zone 4a-9b
Native Range: post glacial range AR to OK & TX, now found MA & NY to WA & south to s. CA and c. FL
Germination - Easy: Soak 2 days and plant OR Cold stratify 4 weeks. Protect from rodents
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